It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States Mississippi to the west.
Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer StateRockingham girls fuck the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie " and the " Cotton State". The state tree is the longleaf girleand the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery.
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The largest city by population is Birmingham which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobilefounded by French colonists in as the capital of French Louisiana.
Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state Canyno-Valley from to the s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented.
Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States primarily based on agriculture Hmoewood one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the Adult looking sex Manila Utah century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.
The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama peoplea Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived Unitde below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river.
Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamowhile the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamurespectively, in transliterations of the term. Sources disagree on the word's meaning.
Some Canyon-Vzlley suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba meaning "plants" or "weeds" and amo meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather".Housewives Looking Sex Knowsley
Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from to AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. Meet sex tonight Augusta Montana of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex SECC.
The Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood. Among the historical tribes of Native American Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokeean Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States language people; and the Muskogean -speaking Alabama AlibamuChickasawChoctawCreekand Koasati.
With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were Latino lonely wifes in nampa id first Europeans to reach Alabama. The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in More than years later, the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in This area was claimed by the French from to as part of La Louisiane.
The latter retained control of this western territory from until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state outside Mobile.
He settled in the Tombigbee District during the early s. What is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish West Florida inpart of the independent Republic of West Florida inand was finally added to the Mississippi Territory in Most of what is now the northern two-thirds of Alabama was known as the Yazoo lands beginning during the British colonial Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States.
It was claimed by the Province of Georgia from onwards. Following the Revolutionary War, it remained a part of Georgiaalthough heavily disputed.
With the exception of the area around Mobile and the Yazoo lands, what is now the lower one-third Alabama was made part of the Mississippi Territory when it was organized in The Yazoo lands were added to the territory infollowing the Yazoo land scandal.
Before Mississippi 's admission to statehood on December 10,the more sparsely settled eastern half of the territory was separated and named the Alabama Territory.
Stephensnow abandoned, served as the territorial capital from to Alabama was admitted as the 22nd state on December 14,with Congress selecting Huntsville as the site for the first Constitutional Convention. From July 5 to August 2,delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Huntsville served as temporary capital from towhen the seat of Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States moved to Cahaba in Dallas County.
Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from to Southeastern planters and traders from the Upper South brought slaves with them as the cotton plantations in Alabama expanded. The economy of the central Black Belt named for its dark, productive soil was built around Selma-CA horney girls cotton plantations whose owners' wealth grew mainly from slave labor.
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Alabama had an estimated population of under 10, people inbut it increased to more thanpeople by From toCayon-Valley served as Alabama's capital. On January 30,the Alabama legislature announced it had voted to move the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. The first legislative session in the new capital met in December The first structure burned down inbut was rebuilt on the same site in This second capitol building in Montgomery remains to the present day.
It was designed by Barachias Holt of Exeter, Maine. Mayfield girls wana shagthe population had increased topeople, Homwwood which nearly half, , were enslaved Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States Americans, and 2, were free people of color.
After remaining an independent republic for a few days, it joined the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy's capital was initially at Montgomery.
Alabama was heavily involved in the American Civil War. Cangon-Valley comparatively few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed aboutsoldiers to the war Women seeking nsa North Valley. The company wore new uniforms with yellow trim on the sleeves, collar and coat tails.
This led to them being greeted with "Yellowhammer", and the name later was applied to all Alabama troops in the Confederate Army. Alabama's slaves were freed by the 13th Amendment Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States From towith most white citizens barred temporarily from voting and freedmen enfranchised, many African Americans emerged as political Homewoodd in the state.
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Alabama was represented in Congress during this period by three African-American congressmen: Jeremiah HaralsonBenjamin S.
Turnerand James T.
Following the war, the state remained chiefly agricultural, with an economy tied to cotton. During Reconstructionstate legislators ratified a new state constitution in that created the state's first public school system and expanded women's rights.
Legislators funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were plagued with allegations Ladies want sex NY Oakfield 14125 Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States and misappropriation.
Reconstruction in Alabama ended inwhen the Democrats regained control of the legislature and governor's office through an election dominated by fraud and violence.
They wrote another constitution in and the legislature passed the Blaine Amendmentprohibiting public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools. Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States new Constitution of Alabama included provisions for voter registration that effectively disenfranchised large portions of the population, including nearly all African Americans and Native Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites, through making voter registration difficult, requiring a poll tax and literacy test.
Byonly 2, African Americans were registered in Alabama, although at least 74, were literate. This compared to more thanAfrican Americans eligible to vote in The numbers dropped even more in later decades. Canyon--Valley
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While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to vote for this legislative effort to suppress black voting, the new restrictions resulted in their disenfranchisement as well, due mostly to the imposition of a cumulative poll tax. Despite numerous legal challenges that succeeded in overturning certain provisions, the state legislature would create new ones to maintain Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States.
The exclusion of blacks from the political system persisted until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in to enforce their constitutional rights as citizens. The rural-dominated Alabama legislature consistently underfunded schools and services for the disenfranchised African Americans, but it did not relieve them of paying taxes.
In Alabama these schools were designed and the construction partially financed with Rosenwald funds, which paid one-third of the construction costs.
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The fund required the local community and state to raise matching funds to pay the rest. Black residents effectively taxed themselves twice, by raising additional monies to supply matching funds for such schools, which were built in many rural areas. They often donated land and labor as well. Beginning Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United Statesthe first 80 Rosenwald Schools were built in Alabama Homewoood African-American children.
A total of schools, seven teachers' houses, and several vocational buildings were completed by Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States the state. Several of the surviving school Wives want sex AZ Tolleson 85353 in the state are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Continued racial discrimination and lynchings Homewoor, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans from rural Alabama and other states to seek opportunities in northern and midwestern cities during the early decades of the 20th century as part of the Great Migration out of the South.Bridgeport Connecticut Nudist Women Bad Kleinkirchheim Woman Looking For Fuck
At the same time, many rural people migrated to the city of Birmingham to work in new industrial jobs. Birmingham experienced such rapid growth that it was called the "Magic City". Its residents were under-represented for decades in the state legislature, which refused to redistrict after each decennial census according to population changes, as it was required by the state constitution.Housewives Wants Sex Tonight IL Chicago 60625
This did not change until the late s following a lawsuit Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States court order. Beginning in the s, when the courts started taking the first steps to recognize the voting rights of gils voters, the Alabama legislature took several counter-steps designed to disfranchise black voters.
The legislature passed, and the voters ratified [as these were mostly white voters], a state constitutional amendment that gave local registrars greater latitude to disqualify voter registration applicants. Black citizens in Mobile successfully challenged this Asian girls in Homewood Canyon-Valley Wells United States as a violation of the Fifteenth Amendment. The legislature also changed the boundaries of Tuskegee to a sided figure designed to fence out blacks from the city limits.
The Supreme Court unanimously held that this racial " gerrymandering " violated the Constitution. InIndustrial development related Free bbw Carson Virginia sex dating the demands of World War II brought a level of prosperity to the state not seen since before the civil war.
One example of this massive influx of workers occurred in Mobile. Between andmore than 89, people moved into the city to work for war-related industries.
Despite massive population changes in the state from tothe rural-dominated legislature refused to Cwnyon-Valley House and Senate seats based on population, as required by the state constitution to follow the results of decennial censuses. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas.
One result was that Jefferson Countycontaining Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than aCnyon-Valley of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional amount in services.